Project Archives

This material was mostly collected from 2020 to early 2023

Background Material

Project Publications



  • 24 standards and best practice guidelines were surveyed with respect to dependability and security requirements for intelligent (autonomous) road vehicles
    • International: ISO (TC 22, TC 204), SAE Int’l, IEC
    • Europe: EN, BSI
  • dependability (mainly safety), the most comprehensive standards are
    • Safety requirements are largely qualitative with respect to both operational malfunctions of in-vehicle E/E systems (e.g., ISO 26262-3 (2018): Road vehicles - Functional Safety)
    • Safety case approach of UL 4600 (2020): Standard for safety for the evaluation of autonomous products conforms with the above; focuses on full autonomy (SAE L4-5)
    • ISO/PAS 21448 (2019): Road vehicles – Safety Of The Intended Functionality (SOTIF)
  • security, the only road-vehicle-specific standard is still in a draft phase
    • ISO/SAE DIS 21434 (2020): Road vehicles – Cybersecurity engineering
    • A work in progress (e.g. ISO PAS 21448)
    • Impacts safety as well (e.g., BSI PAS 11281)
  • Some needs
    • Quantitative measures of IV safety which, with a mix of evaluation methods and with high confidence, can assure vehicle-level quantitative requirements, e.g., for an L5 IV
    • Measure: FR = number of fatal crashes caused per hour of operation Requirement: FR ≤ 5x10-8
    • Better understanding of dependability-security tradeoffs in an IV context would help reconcile existing D & S standards (and lead to combined D-S standards?)
    • More specific requirements (in the spirt of SOTIF) regarding safe use of ML for IV control (project goal 3)

Related Guidelines: Some Examples

Detailed List of References

1. Articles in journals, conference proceedings, and technical magazines.

2. Standards, including draft standards

3. Guidelines: Best practice guides, recommended practice guides

4. Government publications

5. Blogs, and articles from the technical press

6. Articles from general circulation newspapers and magazines

7. Videos, podcasts, lectures, demonstrations, etc.

8. Books, technical reports, websites, and other references

Last Updated: November 2023